The Byzantine sound, the Arabic makam, the Turkish makam This book tries to give the reader a complete picture of the music system of the Mediterranean and the Near East. The art secular music of Arabs and Turks and the music of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the so-called Byzantine, are compared. Much of the treatise is devoted to the musical intervals, in an attempt on the one hand to give a complete picture of the views from antiquity to the present day, on the other hand to clarify the conditions for a modern and definitive position on the subject. The most important part of the book deals with tropical shapes and their function. With the sounds of Byzantine music, that is, the makams of the Arabs and the Turks. The different systems are delivered comparatively so that both the affinities between them and the differences can be seen. The material is offered in a form that makes it accessible even to those who lack special knowledge while the theoretical part is documented with an appendix of musical examples from test compositions in the various tropical systems under consideration. Honorary Distinction 2001 by the Association of Greek Theatrical and Music Critics.